Bhutan is a landlocked country located in South Asia, bordered by China to the north and India to the south, east, and west. Its strategic location in the eastern Himalayas has shaped its history, culture, and environment.



Bhutan’s climate varies widely depending on elevation and topography. The southern region experiences a subtropical climate with hot summers and mild winters, while the northern regions have a cold alpine climate with heavy snowfall. The central valleys enjoy a temperate climate, making them the most densely populated areas of the country.


Bhutan is renowned for its rich biodiversity, with diverse ecosystems ranging from subtropical forests to alpine meadows. The country is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including Bengal tigers, snow leopards, red pandas, and black-necked cranes. Conservation efforts have helped preserve Bhutan’s natural habitats and species.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Bhutan is the Drangme Chhu, which flows for approximately 370 kilometers (230 miles) through the eastern part of the country. Other major rivers include the Sankosh, Wang, and Manas rivers, which play a crucial role in Bhutan’s agriculture, hydropower generation, and transportation.

Highest Mountains

Bhutan is renowned for its towering peaks, including some of the highest mountains in the world. The country’s highest peak is Gangkhar Puensum, which rises to an elevation of 7,570 meters (24,840 feet) above sea level. Other notable peaks include Jomolhari, Jichu Drake, and Masanggang.



Bhutan’s early history is shrouded in legend and mythology, with evidence of human habitation dating back thousands of years. The region was inhabited by various ethnic groups, including the Monpa, Lhotshampa, and Ngalops, who established settlements and engaged in agriculture, trade, and animal husbandry.

Arrival of Buddhism

Buddhism was introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century by the Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo and further propagated by the Indian tantric master Padmasambhava. Buddhism became the dominant religion in Bhutan, influencing its culture, art, and governance.

Unification of Bhutan

Bhutan emerged as a unified state in the 17th century under the leadership of Ngawang Namgyal, a Tibetan lama who fled persecution in Tibet. Ngawang Namgyal established a system of governance based on Buddhist principles, laying the foundation for the dual system of government and religious authority that continues to shape Bhutanese society today.

Modern Age

Bhutan remained isolated from the outside world for much of its history, maintaining its independence and preserving its unique culture and traditions. In 2008, Bhutan transitioned to a constitutional monarchy with the introduction of democratic reforms and the establishment of a parliamentary democracy.


Bhutan has a population of approximately 800,000 people, with a diverse mix of ethnic groups, including the Ngalops, Sharchops, and Lhotshampas. Dzongkha is the official language, but various regional dialects are also spoken. Buddhism is the predominant religion, with Hinduism being practiced by a significant minority.

Administrative Divisions

Bhutan is divided into 20 districts, each headed by a district officer appointed by the central government. These districts are further subdivided into gewogs, which are the smallest administrative units in the country.

Administrative Divisions and Population (2022 estimate)

  1. Bumthang District – Population: 30,000
  2. Chhukha District – Population: 88,000
  3. Dagana District – Population: 30,000
  4. Gasa District – Population: 4,000
  5. Haa District – Population: 15,000
  6. Lhuntse District – Population: 16,000
  7. Mongar District – Population: 51,000
  8. Paro District – Population: 74,000
  9. Pemagatshel District – Population: 22,000
  10. Punakha District – Population: 40,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Thimphu
  2. Phuntsholing
  3. Paro
  4. Punakha
  5. Trashigang
  6. Wangdue Phodrang
  7. Trongsa
  8. Mongar
  9. Gelephu
  10. Samdrup Jongkhar

Education Systems

Education in Bhutan is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 14, with a focus on promoting literacy, numeracy, and critical thinking skills. The government operates a system of public schools, supplemented by private and monastic schools. Bhutan has made significant strides in expanding access to education, with a focus on promoting gender equality and inclusive education for all.



Bhutan has a single international airport, Paro International Airport, located in the town of Paro. The airport is one of the most challenging and scenic airports in the world, nestled in a narrow valley surrounded by towering mountains. Drukair, Bhutan’s national airline, operates flights to and from destinations including Delhi, Kolkata, Bangkok, and Kathmandu.


Bhutan has a network of well-maintained roads connecting major towns and villages across the country. The East-West Highway is the main arterial road, running from Phuentsholing in the west to Trashigang in the east. While the mountainous terrain presents challenges, road travel in Bhutan offers breathtaking views of the Himalayan landscape.


Bhutan is a landlocked country and does not have any major ports. However, it relies on neighboring countries such as India and Bangladesh for maritime trade and access to seaports.

Country Facts

  • Population: 800,000
  • Capital: Thimphu
  • Language: Dzongkha (official), English
  • Religion: Buddhism (predominant), Hinduism
  • Race: Ngalops, Sharchops, Lhotshampas, others
  • Currency: Bhutanese Ngultrum (BTN)
  • ISO Country Code: BT
  • International Calling Code: +975
  • Top-level Domain: .bt