Geography of Hungary

It is located between 45°48′ and 49°35′ north latitude and 16°05′ and 22°58′ east longitude. The total length of state borders is 2242 km. In the north it borders with Slovakia (608 km), in the east – with Ukraine (215 km) and Romania (432 km), in the south – with Serbia and Montenegro (161 km), Croatia (339 km) and Slovenia (102 km), in the west – with Austria (366 km). The length of the country from east to west is 528 km, from north to south – 268 km.

The territory of Hungary forms part of a vast area of subsidence located between the Carpathians, the Alps and the Dinaro-Balkan Mountains. In general, 84% of the territory of Hungary lies at an altitude of no more than 200 m above sea level. The Danube divides the country into two parts: to the east is the vast flat Great Middle Danubian Lowland (Alföld), to the west is the hilly Dunantul plain (Transdanubia) with separate low ridges (the massifs of Bakony, Vertes, Mechek, etc.). The northeast of the country is the outskirts of the young volcanic Carpathians (Berzhen, Matra, Zemplen massifs) with characteristic cone-shaped peaks, reaching a height of 900–1000 m in some places. The highest point in Hungary is Mount Kekes in the Matra massif (1015 m).

The main water arteries are the rivers Danube (the length of the Hungarian section is 417 km) and Tisza (the length of the Hungarian section is 595 km). Hungary is home to one of the largest lakes in Europe, Lake Balaton. Its area is 598 km2, 77 km long and 1.5 to 14 km wide. The lake and its surroundings have become a resort and tourist area of international importance. Many small lakes, especially between the Danube and the Tisza, are also surrounded by recreation areas.

According to, Hungary is rich in groundwater, thermal and healing springs. Groundwater reserves are found throughout almost the entire territory of the country and are concentrated under its flat parts, occurring at a depth of 500-1500 m. The temperature of the water layers is from 30 to 80 ° C. The daily inflow of water from all sources reaches 70 million liters.

The soil cover is very diverse (about 35 soil regions are distinguished with their own complex of soils). The dominant type is chestnut and podzolic soils, which cover approximately 40% of the country’s territory. OK. 25% of the area of Hungary is occupied by chernozems (humus content 4–7%, average thickness of the humus horizon 60–80 cm). Various brown forest soils are also widespread. Almost 3/5 of the country’s territory is occupied by arable land.

Relatively low elevations prevent the emergence of natural forest, which occupies approximately 15-18% of the country’s territory. Forests cover mainly mountains and some hilly areas, dominated by oak, beech, linden and other hardwoods. Forest-steppes and steppes are almost everywhere replaced by cultivated vegetation.

The animal world is typical for Central Europe and is rich due to the intensive hunting economy. The main species are red deer, roe deer, wild boar, hare. In the mountains – mouflon, in inland waters – catfish, pike, pike perch, carp. Among birds, the most common are pheasant, gray partridge, wild duck, stork. Hungary has five national parks, one of which, Hortobágy, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Hungary is not rich in natural resources: deposits of bauxite, lignite, as well as already heavily depleted reserves of natural gas and oil are of industrial importance. Deposits of uranium and copper-polymetallic ores are not currently being developed.

The climate is temperate continental with the influence of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Spring is early, relatively rainy, with changeable weather. Summer is hot, but with periods of cold and bad weather. Autumn is long, warm, but fogs and rains are not uncommon. Winter is relatively cold, cloudy and wet. The average temperature in July is +20–22.5°C (recorded maximum +42°C), in January -2–4°C (recorded minimum –35°C), the average annual temperature is +10°C. Snow rarely falls in winter: 2-5 times a year. The sun shines in Budapest for 2054 hours a year, of which 1526 hours fall between April and September. Precipitation on the plains falls from 900 mm per year in the southwest to 450 mm per year in the northeast.

Geography of Hungary