General information about Singapore
The official name is the Republic of Singapore. Located in Southeast Asia. The area is 619 km2, the population is 4 million people. (2001). The official languages are Chinese, Malay, Tamil and English. The capital is Singapore (4 million people, 2001). Public holiday – National Day August 9 (since 1965). The monetary unit is the Singapore dollar.
Member of the UN (since 1965) and its specialized organizations, the WTO, the Asian Development Bank, APEC, ASEAN (since 1967), the Non-Aligned Movement, etc.
Geography of Singapore
Located between 1°9′ north latitude and 108°39′ east longitude on the island of Singapore and adjacent small islands (54 in total) off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The coastline is 193 km. In the north, Singapore is separated from Malaysia by the Strait of Johor (width 1.5 km), in the south – from the islands of Indonesia – by the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. It is 41.8 km long and 22.5 km wide. S. is connected to the mainland by two bridges, one with a railroad, a highway, and an aqueduct, and the other with a highway.
The shores are low-lying, strongly indented, largely swampy. The largest islands are Tekong, Ubin, Sentosa. There is an intensive expansion of the territory due to the backfilling of coastal shallow water.
It borders Malaysia (through the Strait of Johor) and Indonesia through the Strait of Singapore.
The territory of the island is divided into three regions: the central mountainous region of rocks of volcanic origin; western, composed of sedimentary rocks; eastern – gently sloping, sandy. The highest point of the island is Bukit Timah (177 m above sea level).
It has no mineral resources, with the exception of small deposits of graphite and shale.
Soils are mostly sedimentary. According to bridgat, the climate is equatorial, hot and humid. The maximum daily temperature is +30.8°C, the minimum is +23.8°C. The average daily humidity is 84.4%. Rainfall is approx. 2500 mm per year.
Several small rivers flow. Three reservoirs have been built. OK. 1/2 of fresh water comes from Malaysia.
The territory of the main island is swampy in some places, along the coast there are mangroves. Territories with natural flora and fauna are under state protection. There are up to 2,000 wild and cultivated plants, especially orchids (Singapore’s national flower). The fauna is distinguished by an abundance of birds, there are also reptiles.
Population of Singapore
The population density of St. 5 thousand per 1 km2. Birth rate 1.7%. Child mortality 3 pers. per 1000 newborns. Life expectancy 78 years. The concern of the authorities is the drop in the birth rate among the Chinese population and the change in the proportion of the population in favor of other ethnic groups.
By gender, the country’s population is divided approximately equally. Urban population 100%. People of retirement age (over 60 years old) – approx. 10%, youth under 15 – 23.3%. The retirement age is 60-65 years. There is a unified pension system represented by the Central Savings Fund. Its funds are formed from the contributions of workers and employees, as well as corporations. The action of the fund extends to foreign specialists and labor force.
Ethnic composition of the population: Chinese 76.1%, Malays 15.2%, immigrants from South India 6.5%. Languages – Chinese, Malay, Tamil, English.
Religion – Confucianism, Buddhism, Islam, various directions of Christianity, Hinduism. Interfaith relations are under the patronage of a special State interreligious organization.