The school and university system in Great Britain has been shaped by historical decentralization. Its current form goes back to the main features of the Educational Acts. General school attendance is compulsory from the age of 5 to 16, and attendance at nursery schools is voluntary. Private schools make up an important, if only small, part of the English school system.
The education system of Britain’s primary (primary), secondary (secondary) and training (further education) divided. The primary level is divided into infant school (5-8 years old) and junior school (8-12 years old, in Scotland 8-13 years old). In England, Scotland and Wales, the comprehensive school predominates as a regular school.
In addition to the state schools, which are free to attend, there are private schools , including B. the renowned public schools. Education is compulsory
across the UK ,which consistently covers the age groups 5-16 years. By the government in London appointed school boards (Her Majesty’s Inspectors) the public and private schools inspect the country. The independent from the state schools (independant schools) are in England a very important part of education. The state-independent education system includes pre-prepatory schools, private primary schools for ages 5 to 8, prepatory schools for ages 8-13 and secondary schools.
All of these schools have substantial tuition fees . Most parents of private students spend up to a quarter of their income on this expensive upbringing of their children. The public schools are the real elite among the independent schools. Some are fully booked for years, even though the fees are constantly increasing.
In the final school exams, no distinction is made between state and free schools. For all students from England and Wales who want to take a final exam, there is the General Certificate of Secondary Education . After two more years of school attendance, an advanced test can be taken, comparable to the German Abitur, the A-level; usually at the age of 18.
The exams are not school-leaving qualifications of the kind that are customary in Germany. Rather, they are individual subject examinations that can be completed in any scope and in a variable combination.
The UK’s 87 universities are all under the Central Department of Education in London. However, they are autonomous bodies responsible for all academic affairs, including staffing, curriculum, student admission and exams. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, founded in the Middle Ages, are the starting point of British higher education, which comprises a number of traditional universities. In contrast to the German Abitur and comparable examinations, the General Certificate of Education does not automatically entitle you to study at a university. The universities determine the prerequisites for admission to studies in the individual subjects and how many A-levels are required with which grade, and whether, based on the grades on the certificate, they consider the candidate to be sufficiently well educated, but also to consider his general level of education to be satisfactory.
These requirements vary depending on the subject and university. Most of higher education is covered by universities. They are independent bodies that are entitled to award academic degrees by a royal charter.
In addition to universities, there are about 100 other institutions in the field of higher education. These are institutes or Colleges of Higher Education, where academic degrees can also be obtained. Some of these institutes have specialized in teacher training or other areas such as art or design. As they offer part-time study opportunities in addition to full-time courses, these institutes represent a significant part of the state’s higher education.
School drop outs
Drop Out literally means failure and is often used in the English language to name people who have fallen through the social network, i.e. who do not have a permanent place in society.
A large proportion of drop outs in Great Britain are young people who leave school without a degree. Many of these school drop outs miss the start of a regular professional life and become social problem cases. England has one of the highest school drop-out rates in the world.
School drop outs are one of Britain’s downright problem children. Not only because they head towards a life full of difficulties and obstacles if they leave school without a degree. But also because they (mostly) cost the state instead of paying taxes. They are a burden for the social system and the labor market, they are at high risk of slipping into the social swamp and thus represent a potential threat to the stability of society as a whole. The problem with all its possible and actual consequences for the individual as well as for that Country, has long been recognized in Great Britain. But like most social problems, school drop outs are also a complicated one that requires foresight, perseverance and reforms to get to grips with.