Portugal Attractions

Faro Cathedral

Surfing in the land of the waves With over 800 km of coast and a favorable Atlantic wind, Portugal offers the best conditions for sports such as surfing, kite surfing and bodyboarding. Surfers will find perfect conditions both in the north, in Figuera and Espinho, and in the south, in Alentejo and around Sagres. For bodyboarders, Praia Grande in Sintra is a must. Every year the best bodyboarders gather here…

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Geography of Hungary

Geography of Hungary

It is located between 45°48′ and 49°35′ north latitude and 16°05′ and 22°58′ east longitude. The total length of state borders is 2242 km. In the north it borders with Slovakia (608 km), in the east – with Ukraine (215 km) and Romania (432 km), in the south – with Serbia and Montenegro (161 km), Croatia (339 km) and Slovenia (102 km), in the west – with Austria (366 km).…

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Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul – 7.3 million, Ankara – 2.8 million, Izmir – 1.7 million, as well as Adana and Bursa. Istanbul– a beautiful ancient city, once the capital of the Byzantine Empire, a place where East and West merge together. It is the only city in the world located in two parts of the world at the same time. Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey and one of the most populous…

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Sicily, Italy

Sicily, Italy

Sicily cannot be compared with any corner of Italy. Sicily is a separate, like nothing else world. An ancient land that has absorbed the great history and cultures of different peoples. Wisdom and greatness of ancient times. Greek and Roman theaters, Arabic mosques, magnificent baroque ensembles, powerful medieval fortresses and castles, ancient cities with labyrinths of narrow streets, squares with fountains and cathedrals, museums with collections of masterpieces of world…

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Serbia Arts and Architecture

Serbia Arts and Architecture

Despite its basic belonging to the Byzantine world, Serbian medieval art does not present a unitary development, due to the diversity of the cultures of origin and the continuous and varied intertwining of the influences of the neighboring regions. The important late ancient (Singidunum, Naissus, Sirmium) and proto-Byzantine (Iustiniana Prima) settlements were destroyed by the Slavic invasions, and the first important monuments belong to the second half of the 12th…

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Estonia Geopolitics

Estonia Geopolitics

The Republic of Estonia is one of three Baltic republics, the first among the former Soviet countries to grasp the failure signals USSR and take the path that led to emancipation. It was in Tallinn in 1987 that the ‘singing revolution’ began, the street movement that accompanied the country towards independence, reached on August 20, 1991 during the failed Moscow putsch. Both domestic and foreign politics in Estonia are still…

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Italy Economy and Finance from 1954 to 1959 Part III

Italy Economy and Finance from 1954 to 1959 3

In the sector of economic relations with foreign countries, exports, especially for developments in the second half, recorded an increase of 12% in value and of about 20% in quantity, against increases of 4 and 9% respectively on the side. of imports. As a result, the trade deficit in the balance of payments was reduced from 373 to 125 million dollars and the part of imports covered by exports went…

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Italy Economy and Finance from 1954 to 1959 Part II

Italy Economy and Finance from 1954 to 1959 2

According to Vaultedwatches.com, the Suez crisis caused in the second half of 1956 and in the first months of 1957 an upward movement of prices, which affected not only the goods forming the object of the transit trade through the canal, but spread to numerous other products, due to the increase in freight rates and hoardings. The import price index registered a 7% increase between June 1956 and January 1957…

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Italy Economy and Finance from 1954 to 1959 Part I

Italy Economy and Finance from 1954 to 1959 1

If 1953 can be considered the year of the return to a normal situation, after the overcoming of the decreasing phase of the Korean economy, it also represents the starting point for a further development of the Italian economy. The period from the end of 1953 to the Suez crisis was characterized by a continuous progress of economic activity, which took place in a climate of substantial monetary stability and…

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Italy Men of Letters Part IV

Italy Men of Letters Part 4

In Switzerland, Michele Ferrucci di Lugo taught Latin literature in Geneva and was one of the founders of the Geneva Society of History and Archeology. Filippo De Boni da Caupo near Feltre, historian and journalist, was from 1849 to 1860 in Zurich, where he published the Michele Ferrucci di Lugo taught Latin literature in Geneva and was one of the founders of the Geneva Society of History and Archeology. Filippo De Boni da…

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Italy Men of Letters Part III

Italy Men of Letters Part 3

In the century XVIII, from GD Cassini to Lagrange, from the Ragusa archaeologist Anselmo Banduri, librarian in Paris, to Ennio Quirino Visconti, Italy gave France outstanding scientists, as with the Riccoboni actors and authors, with Galiani, with Casanova, with Goldoni, with Denina, with Gerdil and many others gave her more or less talented writers in the French language. But other little-known men want to remember. Giovanni Oliva (who died in 1757) took care…

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Italy Men of Letters Part II

Italy Men of Letters Part 2

According to Sportsqna.com, Italian immigration was active in England, reaching its peak under Henry VIII and Elizabeth. Andrea Ammonio from Lucca, Henry VIII’s secretary for Latin letters, sang his victories over France in a Latin poem; Polidoro Virgilio from Urbino lived in England and was commissioned by Henry VII to write its history (1534); Petruccio Ubaldini, after having fought for Henry VIII, became the historian of Edward VI; Giovanni Florio was a distinguished philologist…

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Italy Men of Letters Part I

Italy Men of Letters Part 1

Of the troubadours of Italy, Sordello da Goito was in Provence for 40 years; Bonifacio Calvo, from Genoa, lived from 1252 onwards at the court of Alfonso X of Castile. Ruggero da Benevento wrote in Hungary a history of the invasion of the Mongols; and Brunetto Latini spent about six years in France, where he wrote, in French prose,  Li livres dou Tresor . Italian culture penetrated Bohemia with Enrico d’Isernia, founder in Prague of a…

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Italy Literature – New Experiences (20th Century) Part IV

Italy Literature - New Experiences (20th Century) 4

Narrator in verse, clear, lively, loose, Riccardo Balsamo-Crivelli ( Boccaccino ,  La fiaba di Calugino , etc.) had not undeserved a critical applause, which shows what fascination certainly gentle and delicate archaism has in Italy, in which he satisfies the traditional sense of form. And this is one of the reasons for the success of Sem Benelli’s plays too, dramatic dramas, but lacking in true vitality, which know of literature in inventions, in language, in…

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Italy Literature – New Experiences (20th Century) Part III

Italy Literature - New Experiences (20th Century) 3

According to Rrrjewelry.com, characteristic in the writers of the twentieth century is this union of the creative spirit with the critical spirit, a union that, contemporaneity or succession, in any case requires an awareness of the creative work, which benefits and perhaps more often to the detriment of art. An acute critic of modern and contemporary literature was in his debut Giuseppe Antonio Borgese, who then acquired a conspicuous place among…

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Italy Literature – New Experiences (20th Century) Part II

Italy Literature - New Experiences (20th Century) 2

For these writers, Futurism was above all a school of freedom and they gave them much more than they did not receive any. For others it was a short episode in their literary career, an art experiment that led them to better find themselves in forms descending from the old romanticism. The sensational apostle of Futurism in a certain period of his activity was Giovanni Papini, whose intellectual life must be interpreted…

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Italy Literature – New Experiences (20th Century) Part I

Italy Literature - New Experiences (20th Century) 1

Essential character of Italian literature in the first thirty years of the century. XX is a spirit of reaction to that tendency, which manifested itself in the last decades of the XIX, which seemed to hint at a degeneration (back in the centuries) of the sense of form – a precious achievement of a classical education many times secular – in the study of renewal or imitation of forms. Reaction therefore to…

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Italy History – Consolidation of Territorial States Part III

Italy History - Consolidation of Territorial States 3

With this, the Savoy duchy, the republic of Venice, the republic of Florence were established on vast regional bases. Even the Visconti duchy, also locked up between Savoy and Venice, shrunken in the territory, nevertheless has the conditions for a life of its own. It is smaller than the Savoy duchy and the territory of Venice; but it possesses centrality, homogeneity, compactness which are as many elements of equilibrium. In the same years, the…

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Italy History – Consolidation of Territorial States Part II

Italy History - Consolidation of Territorial States 2

But on Zara the Crown of St. Stephen, that is Sigismondo king of Hungary, boasted rights. Who in 1410 also became king of the Romans. And as such, he had titles to assert on Istria, already part of the patriarchate and passed to Venice; he could claim the cities that Scaligeri and Carraresi had kept as imperial vicariates, before Venice took them. He also intervened in the disagreement of Friuli, favoring the anti-Venetian side,…

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Italy History – Consolidation of Territorial States Part I

Italy History - Consolidation of Territorial States 1

The century XIV is full of attempts at vast lordships, no longer limited to cities, and not even to the neighboring region. Frequent efforts, from Milan or Verona, to cross the Po and cross the Apennines: not to mention the vast influence, dominated in many places, by Robert of Anjou from the south. And all this, no longer on the basis of the ancient juridical title of king of Italy, but on new…

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Italy Figurative Arts Part IV

Italy Figurative Arts 4

No monument of the great Carolingian sculpture has come down to us, none of the bas-reliefs that according to a contemporary poet represented in the palace of Ingelheim the most notable facts of ancient history and the wars of Charles Martel, Pepin and Charlemagne. Therefore, it is not possible to measure in its extension the civil movement of the Carolingian time towards the ancient, towards Rome. The name of Rome runs on…

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Italy Figurative Arts Part III

Italy Figurative Arts 3

In the meantime, similar forms take place in Ravenna, in full dominion of Byzantium, in the lunettes of the mausoleum of Galla Placidia and in the Baptistery of the Orthodox (449-459). In the mosaics of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo (mid-6th century), the Roman spirit no longer dominates, and Byzantinism infiltrates the vague indolent lines of the “procession of the Virgins”. Not the nocturnal lights of the mausoleum of Galla Placidia, not the gentle melody…

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Italy Figurative Arts Part II

Italy Figurative Arts 2

The art of architecture had fallen into disuse after the transfer of the imperial seat to Constantinople, so many public monuments remained deserted, and the faculty of building new ones was taken away from the Roman prefect. And Rome became immense, without borders, due to the thinned out inert population, laughing death. The columns generally bore a Corinthian capital of decayed shapes, with narrow volutes, the leaves attached to the edge…

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Italy Figurative Arts Part I

Italy Figurative Arts 1

The art that expanded in Rome, lavishing Hellenistic elegance in the palaces, temples, basilicas, baths, went underground, in the cemeteries of the martyrs and of Christ’s faithful, and wore humble robes. It was always the same art that appeared of marbles and bronzes, of a people of statues, the sumptuous world of Rome; but in the dark galleries of the catacombs, in the darkness of the cubicles, among the funeral parlors, art…

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Greece Religion – From the Persian Wars to Alexander

Greece Religion - From the Persian Wars to Alexander

The Persian wars came to strengthen the spirit of the Olympic religion, of the religion of the polis. In the hour of danger, the religious life of the state became more intense, as the state was threatened. The gods protected men as in the time of the Trojan war; and with men they too won: the polyiad divinities, which were also the Homeric ones, won. All the ancient tradition was…

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Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek

Historical development The set of various languages ​​indicated by the name of the Greek language (fig. 3) belongs to the Indo-European language family. The first direct documentation is epigraphic (linear B; ➔ linear) and dates back to the 16th and 15th centuries. BC The first literary documentation is found in the most ancient parts (perhaps 8th century) of the Iliad and the Odyssey ; but it is not a direct documentation, since we know the…

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Germany Arts and Architecture in the Second Half of the 20th Century

Germany Arts and Architecture in the Second Half of the 20th Century

The architecture The most pressing problems of the post-war Germany were the rehabilitation of the cities and the planning of new urban districts. In the eastern Germany, urban planning policy, linked to the development of the national economy, began with the reconstruction law (1950) which provided for interventions in 53 cities destroyed by war. The urban centers of the most important cities were reorganized, the new residential districts of Rostock…

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Spain History – The Origins of Christianity Part 2

Spain History - The Origins of Christianity 2

The acts of the synod of Elvira have a very great importance, because they allow us to clarify the characteristics of Spanish Christianity before the edict of Milan, characteristics on which the sad episode of Basilides of León and Martial of Mérida had already given a very good clue. significant. Alongside a part of the church perfectly aware of the duties incumbent on the Christian (the same severity of the…

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Spain History – The Origins of Christianity

Spain History - The Origins of Christianity

The origins of Christianity in Spain are shrouded in a profound mystery around which the legend was pleased to weave its plots by fabling, according to a tradition that does not bring us back beyond the century. VIII, the arrival in Spain of the apostle St. James, who would have arrived there around 40. The tradition of a Spanish journey of St. Paul who, writing to the Romans, actually announced…

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Landmarks in Scotland

Loch Ness, Scotland

Castle Trail In addition to its breathtaking landscapes, Scotland is especially famous for its numerous small and large castles. A real highlight is the Castle Trail in the Aberdeenshire region in north-east Scotland. Along the only castle route in the entire country, which annually attracts thousands of locals and tourists from all over the world, there are a total of 17 fairy-tale castles, fortresses and fortresses in the middle of…

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